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  • 家庭教育的有效期和界限

    家庭教育的有效期和界限


    来源:学习力教育中心  文章作者:余建祥

      首先,家庭教育是有最佳窗口期的。孩子的教育敏感期百分之九十以上都集中在8岁以前,也就是说,孩子8岁前是家庭教育实施效果最理想、最高效的阶段。这个阶段也是孩子核心素养的培养最佳期。

      一般来说,我们建议家长对孩子核心素养的培养要在小学之前良好地达成,孩子一旦进入中学以后,家长对孩子的影响力会急剧下降。也就是说,进入中学以后,家长对孩子的影响会越来越小,家庭教育所起的作用也越来越低,是明显的高投入低产出。所以,我们的课程体系开发也是在幼儿和小学阶段重点是对家长进行教育,让家长们在幼儿和小学阶段在日常的生活、学习中培养起孩子良好的核心素养。进入中学以后,我们针对家长的课程就越来越少,重点都是针对学生本人的自我修炼和提升了。所以,幼儿和小学阶段是家庭教育实施的关键时期,过了这个有效期,家庭教育的比重和作用就会急剧下降。

      其次,教育结果会有延后性。多数错误的教育方式,其结果并不是马上显现出来的,而是会有明显的延后性。比如在幼儿阶段不注重孩子意志力、专注力的培养,进入小学以后,孩子上课不能专注听课,很容易受外部环境的影响的现象就会明显表现出来。在幼儿阶段不注重孩子阅读理解能力的培养,进入小学以后,别的孩子半分钟就能看明白并解答出来的应用题,你的孩子可能花了3分钟还没整明白,甚至完全理解错了;旧,家长意识到孩子明显的教育问题的时候,都是前期大量积累的缘故,这时候要来解决,成本就会非常高,效果也不会很理想。就好比癌症在早期是很容易低成本治愈的,而到了晚期不仅费用昂贵,还不一定有好的效果。

      所以,在教育上,家长一定要有前瞻性,不能光顾眼前,这样会很容易陷入头痛医头、脚疼医脚的漩涡。

      第三,要注意家庭教育和学校教育的界限(或者说不同责任)。家庭教育和学校教育是有非常明显的界限的,家庭教育重在培养孩子的核心素养,如孩子意志力、专注力、阅读理解能力、思辨能力、学习习惯等,而学校教育则是重在学科教育,即知识的传授。孩子的核心素养是地基,决定着孩子学习知识和技能的效率和能力。现实中,多数家长把更多的精力耗在了知识和技能的培养上,这也是造成多数孩子进入学校以后,学习吃力和艰辛的最重要原因。这就是分不清家庭教育和学校教育界限所造成的严重后果。

      所以,家长朋友在家庭教育上一定要重视起自己的职责范围,并在关键时段有效地进行针对性的培养,才能轻松培养出优秀的子女。(余建祥)

      作者简介:余建祥,著名学习力教育专家、家庭教育顶层设计专家。


    ·上一篇文章:教育最大的风险,是父母低层次的教育认知局限
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