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  • 学习的三重境界:知学、好学、乐学

    学习的三重境界:知学、好学、乐学


    来源:中国现代家庭教育网  文章作者:吴文娟

    ----浅谈数学教学中的情感教学

    作者:吴文娟  摘自:《宜兴二实小》

      大教育家孔子曾将学习分为三个不同的层次:知学、好学、乐学。认为“知之者不如好之者,好之者不如乐之者。”这三个层次一层比一层高级。“乐学”是一种最高级的学习热情,只有进入到“乐学”这一层次,才能使人做到在学习上自强不息。下面,我从三个层次来浅谈数学情感教学中如何达到知学、好学、乐学?

      一、培养需要,使之知学

      情感是在需要的基础上发展起来的。我国古人曾将情感比作是人的心理的一种波动状态。这种情波的产生,如同水波,“无风不起浪,”即没有客观事物的刺激,就不会产生情感。凡是与主观需要相符合,并能使之得到满足的事物,就会产生肯定的,积极的情感。因此,在教学中要设法使学生产生学习的需要,主要从以下两方面入手。

     。、知数学重要性。每一门功课,若不知道它的重要性,就很难产生重视的情感,更无法:“乐学”。数学是高科技的基础,是21世纪合格社会成员的必备素质,是“思维的体操”,这些都说明了数学学习的重要性。但小学生掌握的知识较少,意识水平较低,数学课也不是思想品德课,这些决定了解数学的重要性只能渗透在数学教学中,渗透在生活中,在不知不觉中给学生以教育。如:我班去参加野炊活动,8点从学校出发时,一学生问我什么时候能到,我趁机对大家说:“同学们,我们去野炊要走平路,还要爬一座山,平路是2公里,上山下山也各2公里,我们准备用每小时2公里的速度上山,每小时6公里的速度下山,每小时4公里的速度走平路,你们算算看,我们大概几点能到?”这时学生来了兴趣,大家七嘴八舌地议论开了,有的说九点半,有的说九点四十五。这时我肯定了正确的答案,表扬了大家,并总结说:“你们看,数学多有用,我们才出发,就知道了几点几分能到。”大家在欢笑中深刻体会到数学的作用,产生了重视的情感。

     。、知学习目标。目标具有激励作用,它不仅能使学生明确学习内容,产生学习欲望,也给学生自学和复习的路标。具体化的目标将知识和能力细化,易掌握,易检测,能及时反馈。知学习目标,包括知学期目标,单元目标,课时目标。如:我在教学商不变性质时,首先出示三条教学目标:①理解商不变性质;②记住商不变性质;③能初步运用商不变性质,圈出重点词:理解,记住,运用,并时大家说:“这是我们本节课要达到的目标,大家有没有信心?”“有”,学生齐声回答。一开始出示学习目标,使学生产生达标的需要,激发了自信心和学习情绪。

      二、激发情绪,使之好学

      对数学知识的需要,使学生产生了求知欲望,但还够,应将欲望进一步激发成饱满的学习热情,使“知学”上升为“好学”。美国心理学家沙赫特提出了“情绪三因素说”,认为情绪的激发归于三个因素的整合作用,即刺激因素,生理因素和认知因素。如何利用这三个因素来激起学生的学习热情呢?

     。、创设情景,刺激情感“味素”。学生的学习兴趣和热情来自好奇心,因此,教师在教学中要设法标新立异,用学生期待的信息来吸引学生的注意力。如:我在教循环小数时,先从自然课中学过的循环现象,出发,问:我们在自然课中学过水的循环现象,同学们想一想,在自然界中还有哪些周周而复始的循环现象呢?

      生:一年四季,春夏秋冬是循环现象。

      生:太阳的东升西落是循环现象。

      师:好,同学们说得都对,你们的知识可真丰富,在数学中也存在有趣的循环现象,你们想知道吗?

      老师巧设问题,导入新课,激起学生的求知欲。接着老师又说:“我们一起来计算10÷3、70.7÷33,看你能发现什么?你能给它取个名字吗?”这时学生个个跃跃欲试,热情高涨,希望立刻探寻到其中的奥妙。

     。、多思多动,激活生理状态。好动手是小学生的天性,而“手和脑之间有着千丝万缕的联系”。很多事实证明,在数学教学中注重多动多思,既符合学生的心理特征和认知规律,还可激发学生的学习兴趣,调动情绪状态。如:我在教“三角形三边关系”这一内容时,让学生动手操作。要求学生先用长度为 18cm,12cm,9cm的三根小棒搭三角形,然后要求把12cm的小棒换成8cm,再换成5cm后,提问学生发现了什么?当学生发现不能构成三角形时,激起学生思考,产生疑问:构成三角形的三条边之间到底有什么关系呢?我启发学生比较三根小棒长度的关系,最后通过讨论得出三角形两边之和大于第三边的结论。学生通过动手动脑,亲自尝到了学习的乐趣。

     。、促进认知,“折射”学习热情。心理学研究表明,情感的产生虽然与生理上的激活状态紧密联系,但必须通过人的认知活动的“折射”才能产生。俗话说 “知之深则爱之切”,这说明情感会随着认识的发展而变化,认识越丰富,越深刻,则情感也会越丰富,越深刻。因此,在教学中不能浮于表面,单纯灌输知识,而应透过知识,重视规则的形成过程,“知其然且知其所以然”;要渗透隐藏在知识中本质认识----数学思想;要促进思维能力的发展,在逐步加深认识的过程中激发学习热情。

      如我在教三角形面积计算时,注重了知识的层层深入?胃湛际,我出示一个花瓣,问学生怎样用这样的花瓣拼成一朵花,学生回答后我用电脑显示花瓣旋转拼成花的过程式。接着我又问:如何用这样的花组成一条花边?学生回答后,同样用电脑显示将花平移成一条花边的过程。这项操作使学生初步从感性上认识了旋转和平移的方式,为下面的拼平行四边形打下伏笔。

      在推导三角形面积公式时,将两个完全一样的三角形拼成平行四边形是关键。我先让学生小组讨论,试拼,再讲清拼的过程并演示,还将三角形分三种类型,一一让学生动手拼。这一过程式渗透了转化的思想。接着引导学生比较三角形与拼成的平行四边形之间的关系,归纳公式:S=a×h÷2。整个推导中,学生动手动脑,既有独立学习,又有小组讨论,学生学习热情进一步高涨。

      最后一道训练发散性思维,创造能力的题目把学生的学习热情推向高潮。题目是这样的:你能通过剪拼,将三角形拼成其它图形吗?课内老师略作提示,课后学生得出了多种拼法。

      三、保持热情,升华乐学

      学生的学习之乐,主要来源于获得新知识,探求成功,学习成就得到肯定,同时,还需要他们在自己独立的实践中,探索中加以强化,在良好的氛围中得以巩固,在美育中得以熏陶,否则难以转化为稳固持久的情感。

     。、形成习惯,稳定情绪。小学生可塑性强,对待学习的热情也不稳定,会出现时高时低现象,而习惯是一个人在长时间里逐渐养成的,一时不易改变的行为或倾向,要让情绪伴随习惯,随习惯的形成而稳定。如一个人不愿预习的学生,最初可以将预习内容出成具体题目要该生完成,慢慢地将详细的预习题出成笼统的。到后期,只布置预习内容,最后,当学生形成习惯后,他不再讨厌预习,而且将它纳入日常生活中,象洗脸,刷牙一样乐于接受。良好的习惯很多:虚心好学,作业认真仔细,解答一丝不苟,独立思考等等,教师都要从小事抓起,时时注意培养。

     。、交流情感,创设氛围。学生是师生双向互动的过程,愉快、和谐、民主、平等的师生情感交往对学习和发展具有不可估量的作用。其中最根本的是教师对学生要充满"爱"。爱可以消除隔膜,使学生乐于亲近你,所谓“亲其师而信其道”爱表现为尊重、信任学生,承认学生的主体地位,一视同仁。爱还表现为要了解学生的需要,性格,与他们“心灵共鸣”。长久的良好氛围,将有利于学生保持愉快的学习心境。

     。、欣赏数学美,陶冶情操。美可经“陶冶吾人之情感,使之有高尚纯洁之习惯。”数学美的特点是有序,简明,对称,统一。主要有:

      结构美。如:7+9×9=88

      6+98×9=888

      5+987×9=8888

      ……

      解题美。如:计算如图的面积,可有割补法,平移旋转法,重叠法三类共计十多种解法。

      图形美。如求下列图形的阴影部分的面积。(略)

      简洁美。如通行世界的阿拉伯数字,用十个有限的符号可以记出无限多个数,就象凭借七个音符能谱写出各种令人陶醉的乐章。

      教师要充分利用教材挖掘数学美,陶冶学生热爱数学的情操。

      知学、乐学、好学三个阶段,相互联系、相互渗透,知学是铺垫,好学是关键,乐学是目的。要使素质教育走向深化,教师在教学中要注意情感交流、情感运用,使学生沿着知学、好学、乐学的道路,培养起热爱学习,热爱知识,热爱科学的情感,从而增强学习的主动性和学习效率。


    ·上一篇文章:中考作文突击训练的几种方法
    ·下一篇文章:本然语文视角下初中语文阅读教学中的朗读教学策略


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    http://www.cnejia.com/news/jsketang/16822131539474.htm




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