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  • 学习不是你想的那样——关于学习的五条错误理解

    学习不是你想的那样——关于学习的五条错误理解


    来源:学习力教育智库  文章作者:杨晓哲

    【小筱荐文】大脑天生就是一台学习机器,人一出生就要面对和学习各种知识,但学习的效果却因人而异,有人认为学习好坏取决于智商,其实不然。心理学家Peter Hollins在他的新书《像爱因斯坦一样学习》中为我们阐述了五条常见的理解学习的误区。

    640.webp.jpg

      心理学家Peter Hollins在他的新书《像爱因斯坦一样学习》(Learn Like Einstein)中阐述了一个有趣的观点。在他看来,我们对学习充满误解,其中有五条误解尤为突出。

      错误理解1:智商很重要

      在全人类中的确有智商特别超群的人,可能只占人群中的0.1%。即便你是那个0.1%也不一定对学习特别有帮助。因为这一群人虽然智商超群,但是肯定会有其他方面的局限。

      重要的不是先天性的智商,而是后天的学习?膳碌氖呛芏嗳巳衔约合忍煨灾橇ι下浜笥谄渌,就放弃了长远的规划、明确的目标和挑战自我的勇气。根据调查研究,那些取得伟大成就的人,并没有在智商上与常人有显著差异。

    640.webp (1).jpg

      错误理解2:失败不好

      学习的过程不是尽可能避免失败的过程,恰恰是不断在错误中学习修正的过程。

      澳大利亚的心理学家做了一个这样的实验。第一组学习者在老师的帮助下,解决一个复杂问题。老师将解决问题的步骤细化,让学习者每一步都不会犯错。第二组学习者没有教师干预,同样的复杂问题,让小组合作完整。结果第一组学习者在很短的时间内解决了问题。而第二组用了更长的时间,中间发生了多次错误,有的错误得到修正,有的仍然在小组中争论不休。

      然而,之后对这两组学习者进行访谈,发现第二组的学习者对于该复杂问题的理解水平明显高于第一组。

    640.webp (2).jpg

      错误理解3:如果忘记了,你就失败了

      考试往往考察学生们是否记住哪些知识点。这固然没有错?墒遣患堑貌灰馕蹲攀О。忘记是创造新的记忆必不可少的过程。

      你忘记了,还有可能是你有一段时间不需要用到它。你只需要去有意识地重复,或是创造场景去使用它,而不需要产生挫败感。

    640.webp (3).jpg

      错误理解4:越多越好

      从早到晚,花费一整天都在学习一定好吗?一口气同时学习10几门功课一定是好的方式吗?学习某种程度上也是在训练大脑的神经“肌肉”,过度学习会导致“肌肉紧绷”,甚至“撕裂”,以至于后来再无兴趣学习该领域的内容。

      学习不仅是不断记住内容的过程(What),更需要反思怎么样(How)应用,以及为什么(Why)要学习这些内容,对下一步学习还有什么好奇值得探索的过程。虽然思考怎么样和为什么要花费很多时间,但是当我们离开考试就会发现,那些真正对终身有用的学习经历,何尝不是我们真正热爱的学习历程呢?

      如果你的学习时间已经忙到只剩应付考试了,那赶快抽出时间来选择一门自己真正喜欢的学科,寻找到自己的学习节奏,好奇探索,找到学习的感觉与成就,比起一直这样忙碌下去要好得多。

      如果你的工作已经日复一日,毫无新鲜感,那赶紧砍掉那些可有可无的事情,你的朋友不会责怪你,他们更期待专注而又迷人的你,少则是多,学习值得热爱。

    640.webp (4).jpg

      错误理解5:学习依靠逻辑

      逻辑很重要,但是所有学习者都不是仅用逻辑在学习。

      当我们看见文法的时候,那些严谨的主谓宾句法就是逻辑。有的时候大脑根本没有办法直接记住这些逻辑?墒,我们只是让大脑有个模糊的印象,这样大脑就可以在其他情境下去识别该模式。从而一遍又一遍地产生出一种习惯和感觉。最终,这种模式还会演变成一种预测系统。就是你在和别人对话的时候,虽然不是母语,但是你已经预感到对方会说什么,句法大体如何分布的了。

      大脑的确很神奇。大脑天生就是一台学习机器,你甚至都无法关闭这台学习机器。正所谓,读书百遍,其义自见。就是大脑潜移默化的功能。我们要做的就是调整大脑这台机器的态度,更加好奇,积极,开放,更加不被以往的知识所束缚。有事没事,重启一下大脑,清空一下不必要的缓存,它就会变得更加神奇。

      其实,关于学习的错误理解,就是我们在学习过程中容易犯的惯性错误,既然有错误,也有失败的学习历经,就恰恰给改进学习带来新的机会。

    本文转自教育技术,作者杨晓哲


    ·上一篇文章:右脑在速读中的作用
    ·下一篇文章:幼儿阶段应该养成的学习习惯和生活习惯


    转载请注明转载网址:
    http://www.cnejia.com/news/xxl/177211526178818.htm




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